Advantages and Disadvantages of Parenteral

Definition: Parenteral preparations are sterile, pyrogen-free liquids (solutions, emulsions, or suspensions) or solid dosage forms packaged in either single-dose or multidose containers.

  • These preparations are administered through the skin or mucus membranes into internal body compartments.
  • These include any method of administration that does not involve passage through the digestive tract.

The term parenteral is derived from the Greek word Para – outside and Enter one  Intestine. It denotes the route other than oral.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Parenteral
Advantages and Disadvantages of Parenteral

History: In 1492, Pope Innocent had received a transfusion from young boys. In 1656, Christopher Wren used a sharpened hollow quill of a feather to inject crude extract of opium into the vein of a dog. J. D. Major and Johannes Elsholtz were the first who successfully injected humans in 1662 using solutions of opium. In the 1850s Alexander Wood was credited to give subcutaneous injections using a true hypodermic syringe. Today, parenteral dosage forms are available with high standards.

Parenteral Advantages:

  • If the drug is not absorbed orally it can be given parenterally.
  • A drug that is unstable in GIT can be given parenterally.
  • Drugs that are undergoing extensive first-pass metabolism are given parentally which avoids the first-pass metabolism.
  • When patients need rapid drug action in emergencies as the onset of action of parenteral is rapid.
  • The patient is uncooperative/unconscious (accident, surgery, etc.).
  • Complete drug bioavailability (up to 100%) is possible.
  • Prolonged drug action is possible.
  • Parenteral therapy provides the means of correcting serious disturbances of fluid and electronic balances.
  • When food cannot be taken by mouth, the total nutritional requirement can be supplied by the parenteral route.
  • Patient compliance problems are largely avoided.
Advantages and Disadvantages of Parenteral
Advantages and Disadvantages of Parenteral

Parenteral Disadvantages:

  • Most inconvenient route of administration /pain upon injection.
  • Generally, need a medical expert for administration (like physician or nurse usually in hospital or clinic).
  • If administered by patients themselves, need good training.
  • It requires strict adherence to aseptic procedures.
  • It requires more time than those administered by other routes.
  • Chances of improper dosing are more.
  • Chances of adverse effects are more.
  • The danger of blood clot formation is there.
  • Drug cannot be recovered in adverse conditions as it is irreversible.
  • The manufacturing and packaging requirements of parenteral dosage forms are more costly than other dosage forms.
Make sure you also check our other amazing Article on : Capsules
Sharing Is Caring:

Leave a Comment