Education And Training Program In Hospital: In the hospital management system, proper implementation of education and training programs on safe patient handling to all hospital staff including; a physician can result in a reduction in the incidences of unsafe movement of the patient by their colleagues. Several training programs can be conducted in the form of a safe patient handling education program, demonstration on the use of the equipment and its maintenance in the safe handling of patients, and conduct of national conferences. The following are some ideas of education and training for safe patient handling:
- All appropriate workers should be trained on using mechanical lift equipment.
- Involve patients and their families.
- Care givers should be trained to check each patient’s mobility every time.
- Consider supporters and peer education champions.
In the hospital, there may operate several practices under training and development program amongst these, following are the seven best practices:
1. Generate training programs that have different learning styles: The hospital management should include training programs that can be learned by various styles such as; verbal, visual, hands-on, etc.
2. Organization of interactive programs: During the training programs, various activities such as; quizzes, group work, and other activities should also be conducted to make the program more interactive.
3. Introduce the computer-based training modules.
4. Display the specific information/practices in the hospital.
5. Ensure the training reproduces changing skills.
6. Consider employee demands beyond training.
7. Evaluate the effectiveness of training programs.
Role of Pharmacist in Education and Training
The following are the roles and functions of pharmacists that need to be strengthened and supported:
- To instruct on all medicine including; pharmacokinetic properties, adverse drug reactions, and drug interactions.
- To instruct and educate on the proper use of all medicines.
- To monitor products sold directly to the public, prescription trends, and the selection, management, and procurement of drugs by government and local purchasing agents.
- Development and drafting of rules for controlling the manufacture, distribution, and supply of drugs.
- Training, supervision, and guidance to community health workers with pharmacy tasks.
Training Programs in Hospital
Hospital staff should receive necessary technical training to perform their task better, improve their work-related skill set, increase knowledge about their work, become aware of their future roles and responsibilities related to their task, etc. The most important strength of a hospital is the employee who works for the growth of the hospital and patient care which includes the hospital’s security guards, lab technicians, pharmacists, nurses, including physicians. There are various responsibilities assigned to each staff to carry out their duties to care for patients. For efficient and prompt working, various training programs must be necessary to conduct in the hospital. Training is the process of instructing required knowledge, skills, and attitudes to the employees to enhance their existing skills, knowledge, and attitudes, and progresses into newer ones. In such cases, hospital authority plays an important role in designing, organizing, and delivery of required training courses for the employees. The nurse in charge, head of the respective department along with the head of quality and operations department, should be involved in the training process to improve the staff’s performance in terms of quality, efficiency, and accuracy. Almost all employees contribute to the productivity and achievement of goals of the hospital organization. Thus the cost is not a concern for the conducting and delivering of the training services to all employees for providing better patient care services and building a repo in society.
Objectives of Training Program
The objectives of the organization of training and developmental program for the employees are as follows:
- To develop working capabilities in hospital organizations about their present role.
- To develop capabilities in all working employees about their future roles in patient care.
- To develop better relationships in the hospital organization.
- To develop harmonization among different team units with hospital organization.
There are various types of training programs organized by hospital departments for their employees to carry out their duties to patient care. These training programs are classified into two broad categories i.e. internal training programs some time also called on-the-job training programs and others are external training programs called off-the-job training programs.
Internal Training Programs:
Internal training programs are generally carried out in hospitals and these are taught by someone staff of hospital organization that has expertization in a special type of work. Internal training methods are associated with to use of the hospital’s resources and expertise to develop and deliver the specific type of training.
Induction: This type of program is generally provided to the entire newly recruited employee at the time of their joining of the hospital organization. In this type of program, a session of introductions to the hospital’s quality policy, Vision, Mission, any other hospital policies and procedures, job description and responsibilities, etc. are taught to an employee.
On Job Training: The purpose of this type of training in hospital is to make the employees familiar with the normal working condition such as handling of the patient, cleaning of machinery, storage of material, sterilization, handling of equipments, management of various risks accompanying with the care environment, etc. Such type of training also helps the employee to make comfort during the execution of the jobs. Such types of activities are generally learned during training sessions given by the supervisor/department head or the more experienced employee of the hospital while performing out a specific task. During this task, the learners should follow the directions of the supervisor and perform out the task.
In this type of training, hospital staff e.g. nursing staff, OT/ICU staff, housekeeping staff, pharmacist, laboratory technician, imaging dept. staff etc., are get trained on various work duties such as infection control practices that include needle stick injury, injection and infusion practices, patient handling, the practice of hand washing and sanitization, use of appropriate personal protective equipment’s (PPEs), various practices of the bio-medical waste management system, etc.
Training during rotation of staff: There is a need to give the training to those employees who are transferred or get rotated to other departments of the hospital to make them familiar with new things, understand new assignments and responsibilities.
The most observable benefit of the internal training program is that it is the most cost-effective, informal, and helps in improvement in the existing training methods as well as communication between employees. The internal training programs are generally conducted by experts employee of their hospital organization and within hospital space so there are no issues of travel expenses, additional space cost, payments for program conduct, expenses of educational materials, etc.
While there may be some issues like the training programs are not conducted by efficient staff or formally conducted or not given sufficient time and not taken seriously by enrolled learner or trainer. All these create a negative impact on patient care services and may down the reputation of the hospital.
External Training Programs:
The external training programs are generally conducted by someone from the outside of the hospitals. In this program, the external courses are taught by professionals who have skilled and expertization in the subject of the training. In such a training program an outside perception is one of the main benefits. In this outsource person may offer a new way of approach that has not previously been considered.
In the internal training program, the trainer from their hospital may be good at their job but the advanced care plan or skill update may not be available with him to train others. Professionals have the capabilities and experience in a wide range of services and they can give in-depth knowledge in the specific subject area to the learner staff which can be valuable for the hospital organization.
External training programs are sometimes also named off-the-job training which is organized at a site, which is away from the hospital work environment for a particular period. In this program, to get complete theoretical knowledge the learning material is provided to the trainees. In this program, various case studies, conferences, audio-visuals, seminars, simulations, role play, and lectures are conducted by an external expert. While the major limitation of such types of training programs are expenses on the place of training, arrangement of facilities, travel expenses, study material cost, course cost, hiring of experts to provide the training. Following are some additional examples of external training programs.
Advancement/introduction/change in Technology/ Equipment: As per the need every concerned employee has to provide training to upgrade them according to situations. For example training for servicing of new instruments or advanced care and treatment of a patient.
Mock Drills: Such type of training is generally conducted twice a year for different categories of employees. In such a program, practical training for the handling of critical situations such as various emergency codes like fire, bomb threats, mass casualties, etc. is given to a concerned employee. Thus to conduct such a training program there require regulatory measures as well as financing mechanisms in the hospital organization.
Services to Nursing Home
Nursing homes delivered the services of residential care for elderly or disabled people. Some nursing homes also deal with providing the services of short-term rehabilitative stays after operative surgery, illness, or injury. Services may include; physical therapy, occupational therapy, or speech-language therapy. They also provide other kinds of services such as; strategic activities and daily housekeeping maintenance services.
The practice nurses are centered in the surgeries and they wear a uniform of dark blue color. The practice nurses are a multi-skilled team; either they work alone or together with the general practitioners. They check all health requirements in surgery, offer health education, nurse triage, and look towards patients with chronic diseases such as; asthma, diabetes, high blood pressure, and provide a wide range of treatment services such as; vaccinations, children’s immunizations, dressings, and cervical smears.
The nurses also deliver advice on contraceptives use, menopausal issues, and the hacking of general wellbeing. The practice nurse also works as a healthcare assistant and helps the doctors and other nurses in the preparation of smears and other procedures in the hospital.
Code of Ethics For Community Pharmacist
1. A pharmacist respects the conditional commitments and ideas made between the patient and pharmacist.
Interpretation: Considering the patient-pharmacist relationship using providing the moral responsivities such trust received from the society. Thus, to maintain the trust of society, pharmacists are committed to patient welfare and undertakings to help individuals to achieve maximum benefit from their medications.
2. A pharmacist promotes the well-intention of every patient in a caring, empathetic, and confidential manner.
Interpretation: A pharmacist is placed at the center of the professional practice and he is majorly concerned for the well-being of the patients. Pharmacists taking consideration all needs stated by patients as well as those mentioned by health sciences. A pharmacist is devoted to protecting the self-respect of the patient. A pharmacist has a caring and empathetic attitude in providing health care services to patients.
3. A pharmacist respects the independence and self-respect of each patient.
Interpretation: A pharmacist recognizes the independence and self-respect of each patient and thereby encourages the patients to participate in the decision-making process for their health. A pharmacist communicates in such language which is understandable to each patient. In all circumstances, the pharmacist respects the personal and ethnic differences between the patients.
4. A pharmacist performs his duties with honesty and integrity in professional relationships.
Interpretation: A pharmacist must inform the fact and perform with the faith of ethics. A pharmacist avoids unfair means of work practices and behavior that impair the professional decision and activities that has been taken in the interest of patient health care.
5. A pharmacist maintains a professional attitude.
Interpretation: A pharmacist has prime responsibilities to maintain the knowledge of new medications and devices as well as to make availability of new technology for patient health care.
6. A pharmacist respects the ethics and capabilities of other health professionals and their colleagues.
Interpretation: Whenever they require a pharmacist to refer the patient or ask for consultation with other health professionals or colleagues. Pharmacists should recognize such health professionals and colleagues for their opinions and values are given to the care of the patients.
7. A pharmacist serves to fulfill the individual, community, and social desires.
Interpretation: The prime responsibility of a pharmacist is to serve the individual patient and take care of the wellbeing of their health. However, it is also the responsibility of the pharmacist to extend their duties towards community and society benefits. In such cases, a pharmacist should recognize that tasks and act accordingly.
8. A pharmacist does justice while distributing health care resources.
Interpretation: When health care resources are distributed, a pharmacist must do the fair and equitable and harmonize the needs of patients and society.
Role of Pharmacist in Community Health Education
The following are described the main roles of pharmacists towards community health education:
1. Processing of Prescriptions: Pharmacist verifies the prescription order for its originality; correctness and drug safety. A pharmacist also checks the patient medication record (if available in the pharmacy department) before dispensing medication according to prescription. While dispensing the medication, the pharmacist ensures the correct quantity and strength of medication dispensed. Pharmacist ensures the medications are handed to the right patients with necessary counseling. The community pharmacist is a unique position in the hospital and the pharmacist is fully aware of the patient’s past and current drug history as well as provides the necessary advice to other health care professionals.
2. Care of patients or clinical pharmacy: The pharmacist tries to gather and integrate the patient information concerning drug history, explains the proposed dosage regimen and method of drug administration. A pharmacist also advises on various precautions on drug-related. In some countries, a pharmacist is also responsible for monitoring the therapeutic response of drugs.
3. Monitoring of drug utilization: The pharmacist can contribute to the monitoring of drug utilization such as; monitoring and analyzing the adverse reactions associated with prescription drugs.
4. Small-scale manufacture of medicines: Pharmacists play a great role in the manufacturing of medicines as per the guidelines of good manufacturing and distribution practice. Pharmacists have expertization in the preparation of medicine. So, they can do this service anywhere in the pharmacy and can adjust the drug formulation according to the need of the individual patient. A pharmacist may also use the new technology in the drug delivery system in the modification of medicine to fulfill the need of the patient.
5. Traditional and alternative medicines: Pharmacist is also involved in the dispensing of traditional and homeopathic medications as prescribed by health care professionals.
6. Responding to symptoms of minor ailments: The pharmacist received various kinds of inquiries on the symptoms from the public and asked for advice on medications for the same, in such cases when indicated pharmacist refers such inquiries to consultants or health care professionals. If the symptoms are related to minor ailments such as; body pain, acidity, general fever, seasonal cough, and cold then the pharmacist can supply non-prescription medicine with advising to consult a medical practitioner if the symptoms persist for a few days even after completing the course of non-prescription medicine. Otherwise, the pharmacist may recommend consulting medical practitioners without supplying of respective medicines.
7. Informing health care professionals and the public: The pharmacist can collect and maintain information on all medicines especially for the medicines which are newly introduced. After compilation and as necessary a pharmacist provides this information with advice and explanation to other health care professionals as well as to the patients for promoting the rational use of drugs.
8. Health promotion: The pharmacist can participate in the various local and national health promotion campaigns; wide range of health-related topics such as national program of leprosy, HIV/AIDs tuberculosis, etc. and drug-related topics such as; alcohol abuse, rational use of drugs, abuse of organic solvent, use of tobacco, warning of drug use during pregnancy, poison prevention, etc. They may also participate in various educational campaigns on health promotion and disease prevention programs such as; immunization, polio-free committee, malaria prevention, and blindness programs in local community groups.
9. Domiciliary hospitalization or treatment: Pharmacist is also involved in the delivery of the health care services including; the supply of medicines to a residential home for disabled, elderly, and long-term patients. Certain policies are being developed by various countries under which the pharmacist visited certain categories of patients and counsel them about medications as well as supply the medicines as per the prescription order.
10. Agricultural and veterinary practice: Pharmacists are also involved in the providing of animal medicine (veterinarian medicines) and medicated animal feed.
Role of Pharmacist in Interdepartmental Communication in Hospital
Pharmacy departments should interconnect with physician and nursing unit whenever:
- The physician prescribed the medication order.
- The patient’s age is a factor.
- The nurse provides the medication for the first time to the patients.
Pharmacists should always check the physician order and the patient history before dispensing the prescription and if any doubt, should consult the doctors and should discuss the possible drug interactions or problems on the prescribed drug medications. For example, if the patients have a history of penicillin allergy and a physician prescribes ampicillin in the treatment of infection. In such a case, the pharmacist should discuss with the prescriber because ampicillin could cause some kind of allergic reaction.
While prescribing the medicines, the physicians should always write the patient’s age and diagnosis. So, the pharmacist can take note of this while dispensing the medications. This is important because there is often a need to reduce the dosage of medications in younger patients. After all, such patients cannot metabolize adult doses as quickly. So, well in advance and to prevent the complications, the pharmacist should check the physician order for the correctness in the prescribed dose for respective patient age and weight.
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