Goiter – Types, Causes, Symptoms, Treatments

Introduction of Goiter:

A goiter simply describes enlargement of the thyroid gland, regardless of cause. It may be associated with hypothyroidism, hyperthyroidism, or normal thyroid function.


Types of Goiters:

 Goiters have many causes. As a result, there are different types. These include:

1. Colloid Goiter (Endemic): A colloid goiter develops from the lack of iodine, a mineral essential to the production of thyroid hormones. People who get this type of goiter usually live in areas where iodine is scarce.

2. Non-toxic (Sporadic): The cause of a non-toxic goiter is usually unknown, though it may be caused by medications like lithium. Lithium is used to treat mood disorders such as bipolar disorder. Non-toxic goiters do not affect the production of thyroid hormone, and thyroid function is healthy. They are also benign.

3. Toxic Nodular or Multinodular Goiter: This type of goiter forms one or more small nodules as it enlarges. The nodules produce their thyroid hormone, causing hyperthyroidism. It generally forms as an extension of simple goiter.


 Iodine deficiency is the main cause of goiters. Iodine is essential to help the thyroid to produce thyroid hormones. When a person does not have enough iodine, the thyroid works extra hard to make thyroid hormone, causing the gland to grow larger.


  • Swelling,
  • Coughing,
  • Throat tightness,
  • Trouble breathing,
  • Coughing,
  • Fast heart rate,
  • Heat intolerance,
  • Shortness of breath,
  • Throat tightness,
  • Underactive thyroid,
  • Weight gain.


1. Supportive care Observation: Monitoring for changes or improvement.

2. Medical procedure Radioactive iodine therapy: A radioactive medicine taken by mouth to reduce the functioning of the thyroid gland or destroy it.

3. Medications:

a. Antithyroid agent: Prevents the thyroid gland from making or releasing thyroid hormone.

b. Hormone: Affects body processes by regulating the activity of the organs.

4. Surgery:

a. Thyroid removal: Surgical removal of all or part of the thyroid gland.

b. Partial thyroidectomy: Surgical removal of part of the thyroid.

Make sure you also check our other amazing Article on : Graves’ Disease
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