Mother and Child Health Programme: To ensure the full well-being of the children within the family and society, mother and child health services are given. Every element of India’s community health programme has a remarkable influence on children’s health.
Development of Mother and Child Health Programme
- 1921- The health service for mothers and children started.
- 1931 – A maternal and child welfare service was founded by the Red Cross society.
- 1938 Indian Research Fund Association investigated the causes of maternal morbidity and mortality.
- The 1946 – Bhore committee revealed that India was having the problem of high maternal and infant mortality.
- 1954 – First five-year plan continued and the BCG vaccine is introduced by CDRI Lucknow.
- 1960-School health committee was formed.
- 1971 – Parliament passed the Medical Termination of Pregnancy (MTP) bill, which came into force in 1972.
- 1975-ICDS (Integrated Child Development Services) was launched.
- 1979 – On World Health Day, “A healthy child- A sure future” was the theme.
- 1984 – “Children’s Health – Tomorrow’s Health” -was the WHO theme.
- 1985 – Universal immunization programme was launched.
- 1987 The World Bank has initiated a global ‘healthy motherhood’ initiative. The WHO theme was ‘Immunization-A Chance for every Child.
- 1992 – On August 20, CSSM (Child Survival and Healthy Motherhood Programme) was released. The Infant Food Act came into effect.
- 1995 – The ICDS was renamed IMCD (Integrated Mother and Child Development services).
- 1996- Prenatal diagnostic techniques act 1994 came into force.
- Pulse polio immunization was launched.
- Family welfare programme made target free.
Objectives of Mother and Child Health Programme
- To reduce preterm birth.
- To reduce fetal and infant death.
- To increase the proportion of mothers who breastfeed their babies.
- To identify the cases of “high risk” and provide them special treatment.
- To prevent communicable and non-communicable diseases.
- To provide skilled assistance at the time of the birth of a child.
- To educate the mother to improve the health of her and her children.
- To provide expert advice to the couples to plan their families.
- To encourage the deliveries by trained workers in a safe and clean environment.
- To give useful knowledge to mothers during pregnancy.
Aims of Mother and Child Health Services
- To have effective control of maternal mortality and morbidity.
- To pay attention to safe childhood and stability in the population.
- To pay attention to Sexually Transmitted Disease (STD) for the health of women boys, girls and postnatal mothers.
- To have successful safe pregnancies.
- To provide safe control of reproductive health for men and women.
Components of Reproductive and Child Health
- Prevention or management of STD and AIDS.
- Referral services.
- Family planning services.
- Growth monitoring and nutritional education.
- Child survival and safe motherhood programme (CSSM).
- Providing counselling, information and communication services on health.
Importance of Maternal and Child Health Services
- To maintain pregnant women’s health and well-being.
- Mother and child are considered as a weaker group or special risk group of complications community.
- To identify and risk factors that initiate during pregnancy.
- Many mother and child health issues are preventable.
- Health programmes for mothers and children include; protection from morbidity and mortality.
Mother and Child Health Services (MCH)
- Ante-natal care services.
- Intra-natal care services.
- Post-natal care services.
- Neo-natal care services.
(1) Ante-natal care:
Women are provided with this service during pregnancy. Its goal is to provide a healthy mother and a healthy baby at the end of pregnancy.
- Promote, safeguard and preserve women’s health during pregnancy.
- Identify incidents of high risk and give them special care.
- Identify and avoid pregnancy risks.
- Educate the mother about nutrition, clothing and personal hygiene.
- Prenatal advice related to diet, personal hygiene and exercise.
- Prenatal services include; physical examination, iron and folic acid supplementation, lab investigations.
- Protect the mother against nutrition deficiency of iron.
(2) Intra-natal services:
This service is provided to women during childbirth. It aims to provide good intra-natal care so that complications can be prevented.
- Provide thorough asepsis.
- Prevent complications such as; haemorrhage, convulsions, etc.
- Provide care to the baby.
- Deliver the baby without injury to the baby and mother.
- Domiciliary care.
- Place the mother comfortably on the bed after delivery and provide some hot drinks (tea or coffee).
- Clean the mother, fix napkins, and demonstrate prenatal care.
(3) Post Natal Services:
These services are provided to the mother after delivery. It includes the care of the mother and the care of a newborn.
- Providing Family planning services.
- To check that breastfeeding is sufficient.
- Providing treatment for the mother’s rapid return to optimal health.
- Postnatal examination
- Haemoglobin examination during the postnatal visit.
- Teach postnatal exercises
- Family planning services
- Health checkup
(4) Neo-natal care services:
Upon the birth of a child, this service is given. For a child, early neonatal treatment in the first week of life is most important. In the first 24 to 48 hours after birth, the risk of death is highest.
- Body temperature maintenance.
- Infection avoidance.
- Cardio respiratory infection management.
- Early diagnosis of congenital and acquired disorders and treatment.
- Setting up a suitable feeding schedule.
- Breast feeding
- Growth and development
- Personal hygiene
- Detection of health problems and treatment
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