National Malaria Prevention Programme: The number one health issue in India at the time of independence was malaria. By the Bhore committee, a countrywide comprehensive programme to control malaria was recommended as the government of India launched National Malaria Control Programme (NMCP) in 1953.
Objective of National Malaria Prevention Programme
Reducing the transmission of malaria to a level at which it would cease to be a major public health problem. After that, each state had to maintain an achievement to indefinitely hold down the transmission of malaria at a low level.
Strategies Under National Malaria Prevention Programme
- Residual insecticide spray in houses and cattle sheds.
- Availability of anti-malarial drugs for malaria patients.
- To carry out surveys and to monitor the malaria incidence.
- NMCP was transformed into the National Malaria Eradication Programme (NMEP) by the Government of India in 1958. The NMEP strategy has been extremely successful and malaria cases have been decreased and malaria deaths have been prevented. However, the programme encountered a variety of technological challenges and financial or administrative limitations, which again led to a rise in cases of malaria.
- The Modified Plan Operation (MPO) was introduced in 1977 to prevent deaths and reduce morbidity due to malaria. The curriculum was incorporated with the delivery system of primary health care. By 1996, there was another upsurge in malaria, with millions of cases and deaths reported. Then, in 1997, NMEP was changed to the National Anti-Malaria Programme (NAMP).
- In 2002, the malaria control programme became part of the NVBDCP (National Vector Borne Disease Control Programme). In 2005, the NVBDCP became an integral part of the NRHM.
Malaria Control Activities in India
- Before 1940: No National Malaria Control Program Organized.
- 1953: Launch of the National Programme on Malaria control.
- 1958: Launch of the National Programme for Malaria Eradication.
- 1970: Reoccurrence of Malaria.
- 1971: Urban malaria scheme launched.
- 1977: Modified Operation Plan Launched.
- 1995: Implementation of a modified action plan for malaria.
- 1997: The Enhanced Malaria Control Project supported by the World Bank gets started.
- 1999: Renaming of the National Anti-Malaria Programme.
- 2002: Integration of Malaria control programme to National vector-borne disease programme.
- 2005: Intensified malaria control project (IMCP) funded by the Global Fund in 94 districts of 10 states (2005-2010). Introduction of RDT’s in the programme.
- 2006: ACT* introduced in the area showing chloroquine resistance in falciparum malaria.
- 2008: ACT* extended to high if predominant districts covering about 95% of cases.
- 2009: World Bank supported National Malaria Control project launched.
- 2010: New drug policy 2010. ACT for all P. falciparum cases in the country Global fund assisted intensified malaria control project (IMCP-II) launched.
- 2012: Introduction of bivalent RDT (Rapid Diagnostic Test).
- 2014-2015: Newer insecticide and larvicide launched.
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