Characteristics of Solanaceae
Habit: These are herbs and shrubs; bicollateral bundles or internal phloem are often present.
Leaves: These are simple, sometimes pinnate, as in tomato, and alternate.
Flowers: These are regular, seldom zygomorphic, as in Brunfelsia, bisexual, and hypogynous.
Calyx: The sepals are (5), united and persistent.
Corolla: The petals are (5) and united. It is usually funneled or cup-shaped, five-lobed. The lobes are valvate or twisted in the bud.
Androecium: The stamens are five, epipetalous, and alternate with the corolla lobes. The anthers are connate and often open using pores.
Gynoecium: The carpels are (2) and syncarpous. The ovary is superior and obliquely placed. It is two-celled or sometimes four celled, owing to the development of a false septum, as in tomato and thorn apple. There are many ovules in each chamber. The placentation is axile.
Fruit: The fruit is a berry or capsule with many seeds.
Examples: Atropa belladona, tomato, capsicum, datura, etc.
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