**Statistics:**

In a greater sense of humankind, statistics is a very old science used even before modern science and technology came into existence. When an illiterate worker takes a few grains of an agricultural product from a container and decides the quality of that product, they apply some statistical methods to arrive at a particular decision. Even in a kitchen a housewife test the curry making it into a small spoon and deciding the quality. Statistics is a branch of applied mathematics and it may be defined as the collection, presentation, analysis, and interpretation of numerical data.

Statistics is the science concerned with developing and studying methods for collecting, analyzing, interpreting, and presenting empirical data. Mathematically, statistics is defined as the set of equations, which are used to analyze the data. Statistics is a highly interdisciplinary field. According to its application in different fields, statistics is classified as health statistics, medical statistics, vital statistics mathematical statistics, etc. There are two types of statistics such as descriptive statistics and inductive or inferential statistics.

In the case of descriptive statistics, the collection of data is described in a summary but in inferential statistics, it is used to explain the descriptive one. Descriptive statistics are numbers that are used to summarize and describe data e.g. arithmetic mean, median, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, etc. Inductive statistics produce statistical inferences about a population based on information from a sample derived from the population e.g. hypothesis testing, standard error of the mean, confidence interval, etc.

There are different functions or importance of statistics such as, it presents a phenomenon or process in a numerical form. Another function of statistics is that it simplifies complex data. For example, if we want to study road accidents and their causes then we have to take data regarding the number of bullock carts, lorries, trucks, buses, cars, motorcycles, or bicycles using the particular road. After looking at this complex data and the type of accidents that occurred, we can easily arrive at some conclusion by which vehicle more accidents occur. With the help of statistics, it is possible to compare the phenomenon or events. For making comparison statistics provides measures such as averages, coefficients, diagrams, etc Statistics helps to measure the results and even it helps to forecast some activity. By studying the average rainfall during the last five or ten years one can forecast the rainfall for the coming year also. One can forecast the spread of viral infection, sales of drugs, agriculture production, exports, and imports, etc. using various statistical tools. Various statistical techniques were used for drawing inferences about the nature of the population. The demographical data and its statistical use can help to formulate the policies for better services to society. It also helps in the economic planning of the state. Statistical methods are also useful in formulating and testing hypotheses and developing new theories. For instance, hypotheses like hydroxychloroquine or any other medicine that is effective in curing viral infection can be tested by using suitable statistical methods.

Of course, the statistics have some limitations that it could not use for any individual case it could not study qualitative phenomenon accurately. The conclusions and inferences drawn from statistics may be biased. Sometimes the statistics can be used in the wrong way and this might be the reason to call that, “statistician can prove and disprove anything. For example, if the wages of an employee have been increased by 5% and the employer is saying that he is paying a good amount of salary to his employee. If a market price has increased by 20% then an increase of salary by 5% does not mean to pay a good amount of salary but it is case underpaid. Statistical results are not the same results as science. Hence, conclusions drawn by this result are only as average. The use of statistical tools by inexperienced and untrained persons may lead to false experimental results and conclusions. The birth of statistics was found in the ancient period like a book written by Kautileeya on Arthshastra (Economics).

The application of statistics is so vast and it plays an important role in scientific, economic, and business studies.

- Statistical tools are applied in all industries for planning, production administration growth, and development. The success of an industry depends on the accuracy of production programming, sales, quality, and inventory control. Statistical tools are applied in inspection planning, control charts, market research, consumer studies. control on inventory, etc.
- Statistical data and methods are used in understanding economic problems and formulation of economic policies. Advanced statistical methods provide a solution to different economic problems such as production, consumption, profits, savings, investment, income and expenditure, unemployment, etc.
- In medical sciences, statistical tools are necessary to collect facts relating to the use of various medicines in controlling diseases and analyses of data. It is also used in clinical and pre-clinical studies of new drugs.
- In the agriculture field, several experiments are designed and conducted with the help of statistical methods to determine differences in yield in various crop varieties. Statistical techniques are also helpful in plant breeding, animal breeding, poultry, animal nutrition, etc.
- Statistical data and statistical methods are commonly used in social sciences. Correlation and regression analysis helps to study and isolate the various factors under study. Sampling techniques are one of the major tools in conducting the social survey.
- A computer is a useful tool for converting large data into small decision-making data. The development of statistics is closely related to the evolution of computers.
- The computations can be performed easily and quickly with the help of statistical analysis using Excel, SPSS, SAS, MINITAB, etc.
- Statistics is widely useful in different fields such as insurance, banking, stock exchange, politics, railways, MSEB, etc.

**Biostatistics:**

Biostatistics is a branch of statistics applied to biological or medical sciences. Biostatistics covers applications not only from health, medicines but also from fields such as genetics, biology, drug discovery, epidemiology, and many others. It mainly consists of various steps like generation of hypothesis, collection of data, and application of statistical analysis. It is a branch of statistics that deals with data relating to living organisms. Biostatisticians can be able to answer many research questions in medicine and public health by using the tools of statistics. It comprises a set of principles and methods for generating and using quantitative evidence to address scientific questions. Biostatistics represents a key element of successful translational processes that often generate an abundance of data on in-vitro tests, animal and clinical biomarkers, and clinical endpoints. The selection of appropriate mathematical hypotheses, biological models, and statistical tests are essential for adequate study designs as a mandatory prerequisite for useful study outcomes.

New statistical tools and software are often used to interpret massive amounts of data and to detect correlations and causations. Biostatistics is used to study a normal and healthy population and to impose limits for abnormality. In anatomy and physiology, used to study mean pulse rate, mean and variance of height and weight, and their correlation in a healthy person.

Biostatistics can be used for comparing the action of different drugs or dosage forms or to assess the relative potency of the drugs. It is used to compare the efficacy of the important drug. Statistical tools are commonly used in community medicine and public health to find the usefulness of sera and vaccines. It is also used for comparison of vaccinated and unvaccinated death and to find whether the difference observed is statistically significant. It is useful for epidemiological studies to find the role of causative factors. Statistical tools are also useful in the detection of reasons for reduction of birth rate may be because of a higher age of marriage, family planning, or due to rise in living standards.

Make sure you also check our other amazing Article on : Historical Research Design