Urine Analysis

Urine analysis is an analysis or test of urine used for the diagnosis of various kinds of disorders, such as renal disease, diabetes, and urinary tract infection. In urine analysis, there is checking of appearance of urine, concentration (pH), and content of urine. An abnormal result of urine analysis indicates the disease or some kind of illness. For example, in urinary tract infections, the color of urine looks cloudy instead of clear. An increase in the concentration of protein in urine also indicates the sign of kidney disease. There requires more testing of urine analysis to reveal the source of the problem. 

Visual Examination

Typically, the urine is clear and laboratory technicians examine the appearance of urine. If the appearance of urine looks cloudy and unusual odor indicates infections and may other problems. Blood in urine makes the red or brown color of urine. Urine color is influenced by the type and varieties of food eaten for example: beet root makes urine red tint to urine. 

Dipstick Test

A dipstick test is used to identify abnormalities or bacterial infections. In this test, there is the use of a thin plastic stick with impregnated chemical or strip of chemical on the stick. If a certain substance or abnormality is available in urine or available at above normal range then their results in a change in the color of the strip. The test is used to detect or evaluate the following indices.

  • It is used to detect the acidity (pH) in urine. Abnormal pH levels may see in a kidney or urinary tract disorder.
  • The test is used to estimate the concentrated (higher molarity) or diluted urine or specific gravity of urine. The result of higher than normal concentration indicated dehydration or not drinking enough fluid.
  • This test is also used to estimate the protein in the urine sample. In the urine low level of protein is normal. Even though a small increase in the concentration of protein is not so much concern while the larger quantity of protein in urine indicates a major renal problem.
  • This test is also used for bilirubin determination which is a byproduct of RBC after its breakdown. After the formation of bilirubin, it gets transported to the liver for its removal and becomes a part of bile. Detection of bilirubin indicates liver damage or diseases.
  • Sugar estimation. Normally there is the presence of sugar in urine in a very small quantity,  which is very low to the detectable range. While the observance of sugar in urine in detectable range indicates the chances of diabetes and there is a need for follow-up of testing for diabetes.
  • Ketones determination. Similar to the glucose, any detectable concentration found in urine may call for diabetes, and there require follow-up of testing.
  • The presence of blood in urine may need some additional testing because it may be a sign of infection, blood disorders, kidney damage, bladder/kidney stone, and cancer of the kidney/bladder.
  • Evidence of infection can be detected by this test by the simple observance of WBC and it indicates the sign of urinary tract infection. 

Microscopic Examination

In this test, some drops of urine are observed under a microscope. If the following are observed at the above-average range, then additional testing may require for detailed diagnosis and confirmation of laboratory analysis and medical conditions. 

  1. The presence of white blood cells may indicate the sign of an infection. 
  2. The presence of red blood cells may indicate the sign of renal disease, hemolytic condition/blood disorder, or any other underlying medical condition, such as bladder cancer. 
  3. Presence of bacteria or yeasts indicates the probability of infection. 
  4. Presence of tube-shaped proteins in urine may indicate kidney disorders.
  5. The presence of crystals in the urine sample may be a sign of kidney stones.
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