How to Make Shampoo?

Aim: To prepare to evaluate and submit clear liquid shampoo. 

Requirements: Beaker, pH Paper, Stirrer and Suitable container. 

Chemicals: Sodium Lauryl ether sulphate, Sodium chloride, Perfume, Colour, Methylparaben, Water and Citric acid. 

Formulation Consideration: Clear liquid shampoos are clear and are used for hair cleansing action. Sodium lauryl ether sulphate is used as the principal surfactant that foams instantly belonging to the class of anionic surfactants. This helps in emulsification and ease of removal of dirt and soil from hair. It forms the shampoo base to which other ingredients are added. 

The surface of the strand of hair is covered with overlapping sheets, somewhat like the scales on a fish. This surface is called the cuticle. Alkaline solution raises these scales, so they stand up this makes the hair rougher, makes it look dull, and makes the hair shaft stick together due to the rough texture. Most shampoos are made slightly acidic by adding ingredients like citric acid to keep the cuticle smooth and lying flat on the hair shaft. 

Sodium Chloride solution act as a viscosity modifier by acting on surfactant micelles and making them swell to get desired viscosity. 

The colour of the shampoo is carefully chosen according to the fragrance added to the shampoo. Methylparaben acts as a preservative (water-soluble). 


Sr.No. IngredientsQuantity GivenQuantity Taken
1Sodium Lauryl ether sulphate30 gm  
2Sodium Chlorideq.s.  
3Perfume, Colourq.s.  
5Waterq.s. to 100 ml  
6Citric Acid (if required)q.s. to adjust the pH to 6-7  


  1. Mark level on beaker for total volume to be prepared. Weigh sodium lauryl ether sulphate in a beaker. 
  2. Dissolve Methylparaben and colour in 3/4th of the total quantity of water required.  Pour this solution into sodium lauryl ether sulphate with slow agitation. 
  3. Do not stir vigorously to avoid frothing. Add a saturated solution of sodium chloride to get desired viscosity. 
  4. Check the pH, if it is alkaline then adjust the pH to neutral with citric acid. If the solution is not clear then filter the solution till clear. 
  5. Add perfume dissolved in alcohol to this solution. Make up the volume to the mark.

Label: For external use only. 

Storage: Store in a cool and dry place. Replace cap tightly after use. 

Packaging: Packed in a narrow mouth bottle or refillable plastic bottle. 

Use: To remove the dust and unwanted build-up of sebum in the hair without stripping out so much. 

Directions: Squeeze the soft, instant liquid onto your hands, dilute with water and apply to hair then rinse with water. 

Evaluation: Lathering Power 5 ml of shampoo   10 ml water in a measuring cylinder and allow to stand for 30 minutes. Shake 12 times in a vertical plane, upside down and vice versa. Allow the cylinder to stand for 5 minutes. 

Evaluation Table: 

6Lathering Power  
7Foam volume (ml)  
8Foam stability (Time) 
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