Functions of Each Part of Brain

Functions of Each Part of Brain: The brain is that portion of the central nervous system which is contained in the cranium. About 100 billion neurons and 10-50 trillion neuroglia make up the brain, which has a mass of about 1300 g in adults.

The brain and spinal cord develop from ectoderm arranged in a tubular structure called the neural tube. The anterior part of the neural tube expands and constricts into three regions called primary brain vesicles: prosencephalon (forebrain) mesencephalon (midbrain), and rhombencephalon (hindbrain).

Major Parts of the Brain

  • The adult brain consists of four major parts: brain stem, cerebellum, diencephalon, and cerebrum (Figure)
  • The brain stem is continuous with the spinal cord and consists of the medulla oblongata, pons, and midbrain. The cerebellum is posterior to the brain stem.
  • The diencephalon is superior to the brain stem and consists of the thalamus, hypo- thalamus, and epithalamus.
  • The cerebrum, the largest part of the brain, is supported on the diencephalon and brain stem.

Functions of Each Part of Brain


The hypothalamus is a small but important part brain. It contains several small nuclei with a variety of functions. It plays an important role in the nervous system as well as in the endocrine system.

It is linked to another small and vital gland called the pituitary gland.

Hypothalamus location: The hypothalamus is de located below the thalamus and right above the brain stem. It forms the anterior part of the diencephalon.


  • It controls certain metabolic processes and other activities of the Autonomic Nervous System.
  • It synthesizes and secretes neurohormones often called hypothalamic-releasing hormones. These hypothalamic releasing hormones control and regulate the secretion of pituitary hormones.
  • Controls body temperature  
  • Controls of food and water intake, hunger and thirst
  • Control of sexual behavior and reproduction.

Medulla oblongata

  • The medulla oblongata is located in the brain stem, anterior to the cerebellum
  • This is a Cone-shaped. – This Section of the brain helps transfer messages to the spinal cord and the thalamus.
  • Medulla oblongata helps regulate breathing.
  •  The medulla oblongata receives its blood supply from several arteries
  • Medulla contains both myelinated and unmyelinated nerve fibers, also called white mattes and gray mattes.


  • The cerebrum is a large part of the brain containing the cerebral cortex. As well as several subcortical structures.
  • In the human brain, the cerebrum is the uppermost region of the central nervous system.
  •  Involved in intellectual functions such as memory, attention, awareness, thought. Language and Consciousness

The 4 Lobes of the cerebrum

  • Frontal lobe
  • Parietal lobe
  • Occipital lobe
  • Temporal lobe
  • Frontal lobe: Reasoning, planning, speech, movement, emotions, problem-solving.
  • Parietal lobe: movement, orientation, recognition, perception.
  • Occipital lobe: visual processing.
  • Temporal lobe: Auditory perception, memory, Speech


  • Cerebellum is located behind the top part of the brain stem and is made of two hemispheres.
  • The cerebellum receives information from the sensory systems, the Spinal cord, and other parts of the brain and then regulates motor movements. Is It is also important for learning motor behaviors.
  • The cerebellum is not unique to humans Evolutionarily speaking, it is an older portion of the brain. It is present in animals that scientists believe existed before humans.


  • brainstem, area at the base of the brain that lies between the deep structures of the cerebral hemispheres and the cervical spinal cord and that serves a critical role in regulating certain involuntary actions of the body, including heartbeat and breathing.

Pituitary Gland

  • The pituitary gland is called the ‘master gland’ as the hormones it produces control so many different processes in the body. It senses the body’s needs and sends signals to different organs and glands throughout the body to regulate their function and maintain an appropriate environment.


  • The thalamus is a mostly gray matter structure of the diencephalon that has many essential roles in human physiology. The thalamus is composed of different nuclei that each serve a unique role, ranging from relaying sensory and motor signals, as well as regulation of consciousness and alertness.
1. Draw a neat labeled diagram of the brain. Write two functions of each part of the brain. (10M)
2. Explain the function of the hypothalamus and medulla oblongata. (10M)
3. Draw a neat labeled diagram of the brain and write functions of the cerebrum and cerebellum. (10M)
Make sure you also check our other amazing Article on : Anatomy and Physiology of Lungs
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