Concept of Health and Disease: Health is the most important aspect for the development of individual, group, family, and country. Health may be defined as the complete physical, mental and social welfare and only absence of disease.
Features of Good Health
- Ability to work efficiently.
- Able to make decisions and complete the work systematically.
- Free from disease condition.
- Good mental condition.
Essential Requirements For Maintaining A Good Health
- Healthy and Balanced diet
- Good and healthy habits
- Exercise and rest for fitness
Healthy and Maintained Diet
A balanced diet is a good source of energy and good health. For efficient work, energy is provided by a balanced diet.
Following are some points which are essential for the maintenance of good health:
- Having a balanced diet.
- Fresh food,
- Proper rest at the proper time.
- Adequate water consumption.
A balanced diet provides good stamina and carbohydrates, fats, protein, vitamins, minerals, etc. should be included in it.
Good Habits for Good Health
- Getting some fresh air daily is essential for improving your health.
- A Correct posture during sleep helps every muscle work in a proper reduces the pressure on your joints.
- Daily exercise and yoga are essential to keep your muscle flexible.
- Keeping yourself hydrated is also essential.
- Motivate yourself to keep your mind healthy.
Exercise and Rest for Good Health
- Proper rest and sleep have their benefits like other essential nutrients habits. and healthy
- Good physical and emotional health.
- There is a fall in concentration and working efficiency due to inadequate rest and sleep.
- Proper sleep and rest enhance body functioning, reduces stress, enhances memory, and helps in the maintenance of body weight.
- Exercise reduces the risk associated with heart diseases, reduces stress, improves mood, and makes your bones strong.
Factors Affecting Health
Various factors affect health. These factors are:
- Environmental factors (E.g. Surroundings, atmosphere, hazardous substances
- present in water and ail, etc.)
- Socio-economic factors
- Personal factors (E.g. Diet, sleep, exercise, etc.)
Evaluation Of Public Health
An evaluation program is a systematic way to improve public health. Evaluation in public health guides public health professionals in their use of program evaluation.
- An evaluation program is a proper method to improve public health.
- An evaluation program is a way for organizations to measure the outputs, outcomes, and any associated impacts that a project may have in comparison to the intended goals. of such a program.
- Well implemented evaluations can inform an organization about the success of their intervention program or scheme, produces an overview of program success.
- Evaluation means effectively developing a strategy for public health.
Reasons Behind Developing Framework
- Effective program evaluations.
- Defining steps in program evaluation.
- Summarizing the essential elements of program evaluation.
- Addressing misconceptions regarding the purposes and methods of program evaluation.
- Developing a monitoring and systematic evaluation protocol for any intervention.
Types of Evaluations
1. Plausibility Evaluation: It is conducted to verify whether a program has reached its goals and objectives while having the power to clarify potential changes as being affected by intervention activities through the use of a control group.
2. Probability Evaluation: Probability evaluations utilize purposeless control trials and are of the stronger type of evaluation as they can more exactly link cause and effects and supply the best indicator of interventions usefulness.
3. Adequacy Evaluation: It is conducted to verify whether programmatic goals and objectives have been met and are simple as they do not require control groups.
Prevention And Control Of Disease
Disease prevention covers measures not only to prevent the incident of disease such as; risk factor reduction but also inhibit its program and decrease its outcomes once accepted. Disease control, the disease agent is permitted to persist in the community at a level where it stops being a public health problem according to the tolerance of the local circle (community).
Prevention: It means planning for disease prevention and making efforts to prevent health problems and the spread of disease.
Intervention: It means controlling a disease during its development stage and taking action during an incident.
Control: It means preventing and having safety measures to stop its spread.
Eradication: It means the complete elimination of the disease from the human population.
Some Important Points for Control and Prevention of Disease
- Avoid overcrowding.
- Immunization of infants.
- Keep animals and insects away from foods.
- Handle and prepare food carefully.
- Wash hands before touching food items.
- Stay home when sick.
- Get vaccinated.
- Avoid unnecessary contact with people who are sick.
- Avoid Alcohol and Tobacco.
- Cover your mouth while coughing/sneezing.
- Eat a balanced diet.
- Exercise to prevent high blood pressure, heart disease, and diabetes.
- Maintain personal hygiene. Regular and routine check-ups.
- Promote health awareness. Prevention and control of communicable and non-communicable diseases.
- Early detection and prompt treatment and follow-up.
- Increase community awareness on health-related matters.
- To increase the knowledge and skills of a woman in community health.
Levels of Prevention
Primary prevention: Primary prevention means avoiding the incident of disease or injury.
Secondary prevention: Secondary prevention means to identify and properly treat a disease or injury process as early as possible before any symptoms are developed.
Tertiary prevention: Tertiary prevention means to cure a disorder when it has advanced after its early stages, to avoid complication associated with it.
Social Causes Of Diseases
Disease: Disease is a state or condition when there is a malfunctioning of body or mind, when the cause of the disease is a living organism, it is called an infectious disease, and symptoms associated with disease state may be physical, mental, or social.
Social Causes of Diseases:
- Social and cultural change
- Various Life events
- Stress conditions
- People, Place and Health
- Health behaviors like; diet, smoking, drinking and use of prohibited drugs, etc.
Social Problems Of The Sick
Sick: The term “Sick may be defined as the person who is physically or mentally ill. The difficulties that sick and long-term ill people are facing are divided into various categories which include:
- Education Problems
- Social Relationship
- Employment issues
- Loss of independence
- Communication issues
1. Education Problem: Even making a huge amount of effort, education development is still at a low level and there are various educational problems faced in the progress of education.
- Lack of funds
- Expensive higher education
- The problem of brain drain
- Problems of primary education
2. Social Relationship: Physically challenged people have many social problems and generally have a small group and it is mainly due to their disability or communication issues and mental health.
3. Employment Issues: Many youths in India are not getting the work (the eligible work). India is facing a problem in generating employment for the young population. The increase in the population of India affects employment. The chances are less as compared to the number of employees. So many people remain unemployed. The literacy rate is currently increasing, but the chances are not increasing accordingly. The crime rate is increased due to unemployment. The people, who are not getting jobs, follow the wrong pathway to gain money, increasing the crime rate in India.
4. Loss of Independence: Physically challenged people have difficulties in self-care. For the people who are paralyzed, their situation is worse. They lost their freedom, independence because they depend on others for regular activities like; eating, bathing, and dressing. They also failed to maintain the quality of life and were not able to live with dignity. These people also depend on others financially.
5. Communication issues: Communication problem is a major problem in social life Mentally stressed or depressed people have difficulty in expressing themselves and due to this, other people find it hard to communicate with them.
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