Aim: To prepare, evaluate and submit cold cream.
Requirements: Beaker, Stirrer, Water bath, and Wide-mouth container.
Chemicals: White Beeswax, Liquid paraffin, Borax, Methylparaben, Propylparaben, Perfume, and Water.
Formulation Consideration: Dry skin appears cracked due to a lack of moisture. Cold cream is an emollient used to prevent the loss of moisture by forming an oily film on the skin surface in winter to prevent drying of the skin. Cold cream is greasier than vanishing cream. These are compounds primarily of natural waxes and vegetable oil. Vegetable oil is replaced by mineral oil as vegetable oil has a characteristic odor and turns rancid.
Formulation Consideration for Bees’ Wax/Borax Type of Cold Cream:
The beeswax and borax system is used as an emulsifier system to prepare cold cream. Mineral oil-like liquid paraffin is used as the oily phase. Beeswax contains esters like myristate, palmitate, and higher fatty acid like cerotic acid. They form both o/w and w/o creams without the aid of a secondary emulsifier. Sodium borate (Borax) can hydrolyze to liberate NaOH and boric acid in water. This NaOH reacts with cerotic acid to form sodium create which can form o/w or w/o emulsion depending upon.
- The ratio of oil to water.
- The proportion of beeswax is saponified.
- Constituents of cream (which will affect HLB).
- It is reported that preparation at high temperatures tends to produce cold creams of w/o type.
- It is also possible that phase inversion may occur on the skin when o/w emulsion is spread onto to skin surface and the water phase begins to evaporate. An emulsifier such as sorbitan fatty acid esters can be used.
Beeswax ↔ Myristate + Palmitate + Cerotic Acid
Borax ↔ Boric Acid + NaOH
Cerotic Acid + NaOH ↔ Sodium cerotate (monovalent soaps)
Sodium cerotate and monovalent soap, hence o/w soap is formed. But because of the phase volume ratio, w/o emulsion is formed. This phase inversion is international to get w/o emulsion. As the reaction is quantitative, the quality of the cream depends on the accuracy of weighing.
|Sr.No.||Ingredients||Qty. given (gm) For 100 g||Qty. taken For|
|7.||Water||q.s 100 gm|
- Melt beeswax, liquid paraffin, and Propylparaben in a beaker.
- Dissolve Methylparaben, and borax in boiling water. Maintain both at 70°C. Add aqueous phase to oily phase and keep stirring the mixture for some time in a water bath and then pour in a warm mortar and triturate.
- Add perfume at 45°C and transfer it to a tarred container.
Label: FOR EXTERNAL USE ONLY.
Storage: Store at room temperature and in tightly closed containers to prevent dehydration.
Packaging: Wide-mouth container.
Use: As a night cream in winter to prevent drying of the skin.
Directions: Take a small quantity on the palm and gently apply it onto the face and neck in a circular motion till absorbed.
|3.||Nature of film|
|7.||Type of emulsion|
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